Cooking Vocabulary Glossary
Note: Phonetic guides are included for difficult French words,giving the approximate pronunciation using English sounds. Exact rendering is impossible in many cases because French has a number of sounds that don’t exist in English.
Aboyeur (ah bwah yer)- Kitchen worker who accepts and transmits
orders from waiters, calls for orders to be finished,inspects finished
dishes,and passes them to the dining room staff.
Adductor Muscle – The muscle with which a mollusk closes its shell. In
the case of American and Canadian scallops, this is usually the only
part that is eaten.
Aerobic – Requiring oxygen to live and grow; said of bacteria.
Aging – Holding meats in coolers under controlled conditions to allow
natural tenderizing to take place.
À la Carte – (1) Referring to a menu on which each individual item is
listed with a separate price. (2) Referring to cooking to order, as opposed
to cooking ahead in large batches.
Al Dente – Firm, not soft or mushy, to the bite. Said of vegetables and pasta.
Allemande – (1) German style. (2) A sauce made of velouté (usually veal), a liaison,and lemon juice.
Allumette – Cut into matchstick shapes;usually refers to potatoes.
Americano – Espresso diluted with hot water.
Anadromous- Referring to fish that live in salt water but spawn in fresh water.
Anaerobic – Requiring an absence of oxygen to live and grow; said of bacteria.
Anthocyanins – Red or purple pigments in vegetables and fruits.
Antipasto – Italian hors d’oeuvre.
AP Weight – As purchased;the weight of an item before trimming.
Arborio Rice – A variety of short-grain rice from Italy.
Argenteuil (ar zhawn toy) – Garnished with asparagus.
Artisan(al) – Cheese A cheese produced primarily by hand, in small
batches, with particular attention to the tradition of the cheese maker’s
art and using as little mechanization as possible.
Aspic Jelly – A clarified stock that contains enough gelatin to solidify when cold.
Aspic Powder – Unflavored gelatin mixed with a powdered stock base.
AS Weight – As served;the weight of an item as sold or served,after processing
Au Gratin (oh gra tan) – Having a browned or crusted top, often made
by topping with bread crumbs,cheese,and/or a rich sauce and passing
under the broiler or salamander.
Au Jus (oh zhoo) – Served with its natural juices, usually unthickened
Au Sec (oh seck) – Until dry.
Avgolemono – Greek soup made of chicken stock,egg,and lemon juice.
Bacteria – Microscopic organisms,some of which can cause disease,including food-borne disease.
Bain-Marie – A container of hot water used for keeping foods hot.
Bake – To cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air. Similar to
roast, but the term bake usually applies to breads, pastries, vegetables, and fish.
Baked Alaska – A dessert consisting of ice cream on a sponge cake base, covered with meringue and browned in the oven.
Barbecue – To cook with dry heat created by the burning of hardwood or by the hot coals of this wood.
Bard – To tie thin slices of fat, such as pork fatback,over meats with no natural fat cover to protect them while roasting.
Basic Grind – Referring to sausages made simply by grinding meats to various stages of coarseness or fineness.
Basmati Rice – A variety of long-grain rice from India.
Batonnet – Cut into sticks,about 1/4 × 1/4 × 21/3–3 inches (6 mm × 6 mm × 6–7.5 cm).
Batter – Semi liquid mixture containing flour or other starch,used for the production of such products as cakes and breads and for coating products to be deep-fried.
Bavarian Cream – A dessert made of custard sauce, gelatin, and whipped cream.
Bean Curd – see Tofu.
Bean Paste – see Miso.
Béarnaise (bare nez) – A sauce made of butter and egg yolks and flavored
with a reduction of vinegar, shallots, tarragon, and peppercorns.
Béchamel – A sauce made by thickening milk with a roux.
Beignet – Fritter.
Beurre Manié (burr mahn yay) – A mixture of equal parts raw butter and flour mixed together into a smooth paste.
Beurre Noir (burr nwahr) – Butter heated until it is dark brown, then flavored with vinegar.
Beurre Noisette (burr nwah zett) – Whole butter heated until it is light brown.
Bisque – A cream soup made from shellfish.
Bivalve – A mollusk with a pair of hinged shells,such as clam and oyster.
Blanch – To cook an item partially and briefly in boiling water or in hot
fat.Usually a pre-preparation technique,as to loosen peels from vegetables,
fruits, and nuts, to partially cook French fries or other foods
before service, to prepare for freezing, or to remove undesirable flavors.
Blancmange – (1) An English pudding thickened with cornstarch. (2) A French almond-flavored pudding containing gelatin and milk.
Blanquette – A white stew made of white meat or poultry simmered without preliminary browning and served with a white sauce.
Boar – Wild pig, or the meat from this animal.
Boeuf à la Mode – A classic French dish of braised beef.
Boil – To cook in water or other liquid that is bubbling rapidly, about 212°F (100°C) at sea level and at normal pressure.
Bombe – A molded ice cream or sherbet dessert.
Bordelaise – A brown sauce flavored with a reduction of red wine,shallots, pepper,and herbs and garnished with marrow.
Botulism – A deadly food-borne intoxication usually associated with improperly canned foods.
Bouquet Garni – A combination of fresh herbs tied together, used for flavoring.
Bouquetière (book tyair) – Garnished with an assortment or bouquet
of fresh vegetables,such as artichokes,carrots,turnips,green beans,
Braise – (1) To cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually after
preliminary browning. (2) To cook (certain vegetables) slowly in a
small amount of liquid without preliminary browning.
Breve (bray vay) – A mixture of espresso and steamed half-and-half.
Brine Cure – A curing method in which the food is immersed in a solution (brine) made of the curing ingredients dissolved in water.
Brioche – Rich yeast dough containing large amounts of eggs and butter, or the product made from this dough.
Broil – To cook with radiant heat from above.
Broth – A flavorful liquid obtained from the simmering of meats and/or vegetables.
Brunoise (broon wahz) – (1) Cut into very small (1/8 inch/3 mm) dice. (2) Garnished with vegetables cut in this manner.
Bruschetta (broo sket ta) – A slice of toasted Italian bread served as an
appetizer, usually rubbed with garlic and moistened with olive oil,
often served with additional toppings.
Bulgur – A type of cracked wheat that has been partially cooked.
Buttercream – An icing made of butter and/or shortening blended with
confectioners’sugar or sugar syrup and,sometimes,other ingredients.
Butterflied – Cut partially through and spread open to increase the surface area.
Calamari – Italian for “squid”(plural).
Calorie – The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg
water by 1°C. Used as a measure of food energy. More correctly
called a kilocalorie.
Canapé (can ah pay) – Tiny open-faced sandwich, served as an hors d’oeuvre.
Capon – A castrated male chicken.
Cappuccino – Mixture of equal parts espresso and frothy,steamed milk. Caramelization The browning of sugars caused by heat.
Carbohydrates – Any of a group of compounds,including starches and sugars,that supply energy to the body.
Carême, Marie-Antoine – Famous nineteenth-century French chef,often considered the founder of classical cuisine.
Carotenoids – Yellow or orange pigments in vegetables and fruits.
Carpaccio – Very thin slices of meat or fish, served raw.
Carry-over – Cooking The rise in temperature inside roast meat after it is removed from the oven.
Catadromous – Referring to fish that live in fresh water but spawn in the ocean.
Caul – A fatty membrane that covers the stomach of a pig;used for wrapping meats for cooking and for lining terrines.
Caviar – (1) The salted roe or eggs of sturgeon. (2) The salted roe of another
fish,such as salmon or whitefish,if that fish is designated in the
Celsius Scale – The metric system of temperature measurement,with
0°C set at the freezing point of water and 100°C set at the boiling
point of water.
Centi- Prefix in the metric system meaning “one-hundredth.”
Cephalopod – A member of the class of mollusks that includes octopus and squid.
Certified Pork Pork – that is guaranteed or certified to be free of trichinosis.
Chai – A sweetened blend of spiced milk and tea.
Charcuterie (shar koo tree) – The art of preparing fresh and cured pork products,including sausages and pâtés.
Charcutier (shar koo tyay) – One who prepares and sells pork products, including sausages and pâtés.
Chasseur (sha sur) – “Hunter style,” usually referring to items served
with a brown sauce containing mushrooms,tomato,and white wine.
Chaud-Froid – An opaque sauce containing gelatin,used to coat certain cold foods.
Chef – The person in charge of a kitchen or of a department of a kitchen.
Chèvre – A cheese made from goat’s milk.
Chiffon – (1) A light, fluffy dessert or pie filling containing gelatin and
beaten egg whites. (2) A type of cake made with an egg-white foam
and with oil as a shortening.
Chiffonade – Cut into fine shreds; usually said of leafy vegetables and herbs.
China Cap – A cone-shaped strainer.
Chitterlings – Pork intestines.
Chlorophyll – Green pigment in vegetables and fruits.
Cholesterol – A fatty substance found in foods derived from animal
products and in the human body;it has been linked to heart disease.
Chop – To cut into irregularly shaped pieces.
Choucroute (shoo kroot) – Sauerkraut.
Choucroute Garni – Sauerkraut cooked with sausage,pork,and,sometimes, poultry products. A specialty of Alsace,France.
Chowder – A hearty American soup made from fish,shellfish,and/or vegetables, usually containing milk and potatoes.
Chutney – Any of several types of spicy condiments or relishes.
Cilantro – The fresh coriander plant,used as an herb.
Clamart – Garnished with or containing peas.
Clarified Butter – Purified butterfat,with water and milk solids removed.
Clearmeat – A mixture of ground meat,egg whites,and flavoring ingredients, used to clarify consommés.
Club Sandwich – A sandwich consisting of three slices of toast and
filled with such ingredients as sliced chicken or turkey, lettuce,
Coagulation – The process by which proteins become firm, usually when heated.
Cocktail – A type of appetizer generally made of seafood or fruit and often served with a tart or tangy sauce.
Cold Smoking – A smoking method in which the foods are smoked at
a low temperature, usually at or below 85°F (30°C),so that the food
is not cooked during the smoking.
Collagen – A type of connective tissue in meats that dissolves when cooked with moisture.
Collagen Casing – An edible artificial sausage casing molded from animal materials.
Combi (Combination Oven – An oven that can operate in conventional, convection,and steamer modes.
Complementary Protein – Protein supplied by foods that, if eaten together, supply all the amino acids necessary in the human diet.
Complete Protein – A protein that supplies all the amino acids necessary in the human diet.
Compound Butter – A mixture of raw butter and various flavoring ingredients.
Concasser – To chop coarsely.
Conduction – The transfer of heat from one item to something touching it or a cooler part of the first item.
Consommé – A rich, flavorful seasoned stock or broth that has been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent.
Convection – The transfer of heat by the movement of a liquid or gas.
Convection Oven – An oven in which hot air is circulated by a fan.
Convenience Food – Any food product that has been partially or completely prepared or processed by the manufacturer.
Coq au Vin (coke oh van) – A French dish of chicken braised in wine.
Coral – The roe or eggs of certain shellfish.
Coulis – A vegetable or fruit purée, used as a sauce.
Coupe – A dessert consisting of one or two scoops of ice cream or sherbet
in a dish or glass,topped with syrups,fruits,toppings,and/or garnishes;
Course – A food or group of foods served at one time or intended to be eaten at the same time.
Court Bouillon (koor bwee yohn) – Water containing seasonings, herbs,and,usually, an acid; used for cooking fish.
Couscous – A type of granular pasta from North Africa, cooked like a grain.
Cream Soup – A soup thickened with roux or another thickening agent and containing milk and/or cream.
Crècy (kray see) – Garnished with or containing carrots.
Crème Anglaise (krem awng lezz) – A light vanilla-flavored custard sauce made of milk,sugar,and egg yolks.
Crème Fraîche – A thick, slightly aged heavy cream.
Crépinette – A sausage patty wrapped in caul.
Critical Control Point (CCP) – An action that can be taken to eliminate or minimize a food safety hazard.
Croissant – A crescent-shaped roll made from a rich, rolled-in yeast dough.
Croquette (crow kett) – Food that has been puréed or bound with a thick sauce,made into small shapes,breaded,and fried.
Cross-Contamination – The transfer of bacteria to food from another food or from equipment or work surfaces.
Crudité (croo dee tay) – A raw vegetable served as a relish.
Crustacean – A sea animal with a segmented shell and jointed legs,such as lobster and shrimp.
Curing – Salt See Prague Powder #1.
Custard – A liquid that is thickened or set firm by the coagulation of egg protein.
Cuttlestrong textfish – A cephalopod similar to squid, but with a chalky interior bone and a squatter body shape.
Cycle Menu – A menu that changes every day for a certain period,then repeats the same daily items in the same order.
Danish- A rich,sweet,flaky yeast dough containing layers of rolled-in fat.
Deci- Prefix in the metric system meaning “one-tenth.”
Deep-fry – To cook submerged in hot fat.
Deglaze – To swirl a liquid in a sauté pan or other pan to dissolve cooked particles or food remaining on the bottom.
Demi-glace – A rich brown sauce that has been reduced by half.
Demitasse – Literally,“half-cup.”Strong,black coffee served in small cups after dinner.
Denature – To change the structure of protein molecules by heat or by chemical means.
Doria – Garnished with cucumbers cooked in butter.
Drawn – With entrails removed.
Dressed – (1) Poultry market form: killed, bled, and plucked. (2) Fish market form: viscera, scales,head,tail,and fins removed.
Drop Batter – A batter that is too thick to pour but that drops from a spoon in lumps.
Dry Cure – A curing method in which the curing ingredients are packed or rubbed over the food.
Dry-heat Cooking Method – A method in which heat is conducted to foods without the use of moisture.
Dubarry – Garnished with or containing cauliflower.
Duchesse Potatoes (doo shess) – Potato purée mixed with butter and egg yolks.
Dumpling – Any of a variety of small starch products made from soft
dough or batter and cooked by simmering or steaming.
Duxelles – A coarse paste or hash made of finely chopped mushrooms sautéed with shallots.
Elastin – A type of connective tissue in meats that does not dissolve when cooked.
Emincer (em an say) – To cut into very thin slices.
Empty Calorie Food – A food that supplies few nutrients per calorie.
Emulsified Grind – Referring to sausages made by processing the meat
and fat to a purée,usually with the addition of water or another liquid.
Emulsion – A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids.
Entremetier (awn truh met yay) – The cook who prepares vegetables, starches,soups,and eggs.
Epazote (ep ah so tay) – A pungent herb,used in Mexican cooking.
EP Weight – Edible portion;the weight of an item after all trimming and preparation is done.
Escoffier, Georges Auguste – Great chef of the early twentieth century and the father of modern cookery.
Essential Fatty Acid – A fatty acid that must be consumed in the diet because it can’t be made by the body.
Espagnole – A sauce made of brown stock and flavoring ingredients and thickened with a brown roux.
Espresso – Expresso Strong,dark coffee made from beans roasted until
almost black,ground very fine,and brewed under steam pressure.
Étuver (ay too vay) – To cook or steam an item in its own juices;to sweat.
Executive Chef – The manager of a large kitchen or food production department.
Extended Meal Service – Service of a meal at which customers eat at different times.
Expediter – Kitchen worker who accepts and transmits orders from waiters, calls for orders to be finished, inspects finished dishes, and passes them to the dining room staff.
Facultative – Able to live and grow with or without the presence of oxygen; said of bacteria.
Farmstead Cheese – Cheese made entirely with milk from a farmer’s
own herd or flock, and made on the farm where the animals are raised.
Farro – A grain that is the ancestor of modern wheat.
Fermentation – The process by which yeast acts on carbohydrates to change them into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
Fermière (fair myair) – Garnished with carrots,turnips,onions,and celery cut into uniform slices.
Fettuccine -Flat egg noodles.
Fiber – A group of indigestible carbohydrates found in grains, fruits, and vegetables.
Fillet – Filet (1) Meat:Boneless tenderloin.(2) Fish:Boneless side of fish.
Flavones – White pigments in vegetables and fruits.
Flavor Profile – The combination of flavors and aromas that make up the total taste impression of a dish.
Florentine – Garnished with or containing spinach.
Flow of Food – The path that food travels in a food service operation from receiving to serving.
Foie Gras (fwah grah) – Liver of specially fattened geese and ducks.
Fondant – A smooth, creamy white icing or candy consisting of very finely crystallized sugar syrup.
Fond Lié – A sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or a similar starch.
Fondue Swiss – A dish consisting of melted Gruyère and Emmenthaler
cheeses and white wine into which cubes of bread are dipped and
eaten.From the French word meaning “melted.”
Food Danger Zone – The temperature range of 41° to 135°F (5° to 57°C),in which bacteria grow rapidly.
Forcemeat – A seasoned mixture of ground meats and other foods,used
as a filling or stuffing or as a base for terrines and patés.
Forestière – Garnished with mushrooms.
Four-hour Rule – The sanitary practice of permitting foods to remain
in the food danger zone for a cumulative total of no more than four
hours between receiving and serving.
Free-range – Referring to animals, usually poultry, that are allowed to
move relatively freely outdoors as they are raised for market.
French Dressing – Salad dressing made of oil,vinegar,and seasonings.
French-style – Ice Cream Ice cream containing egg yolks.
Fricassée – A white stew in which the meat is cooked in fat without browning before liquid is added.
Frisée – A variety of curly endive or chicory that is more tender and lighter in color than curly endive.
Frittata – A flat,unfolded omelet.
Fry – To cook in hot fat.
Fumet (foo may) – A flavorful stock, usually fish stock.
Galantine – A forcemeat wrapped in the skin of the animal from which
it is made,such as a chicken or duck,or rolled into a cylinder without the skin.
Game – Meat from animals and birds normally found in the wild;many game animals are now farm-raised.
Garde Manger (gard mawn zhay) – (1) The cook in charge of cold food
production,including salads and buffet items.(2) The department of a kitchen in which these foods are prepared.
Garni Garnished.- Having had garnish added to it.
Garnish – (1) Decorative edible item used to ornament or enhance the
eye appeal of another food item. (2) To add such a decorative item to food.
Garnituren – (1) Garnish. (2) The act or process of garnishing.
Gastrique – A mixture of caramelized sugar and vinegar, used to flavor sauces.
Gazpacho – A cold Spanish soup made of puréed raw vegetables.
Gelatinization – The process by which starch granules absorb water and swell in size.
Gelée- Aspic jelly.
Genoise (zhen wahz) – A French sponge cake.
Glace de Viande (glahss duh vee awnd) – Meat glaze; a reduction of brown stock.
Glaze – (1) A stock that is reduced until it coats the back of a spoon.(2) A
shiny coating, such as a syrup, applied to a food. (3) To make a food
shiny or glossy by coating it with a glaze or by browning it under a broiler or in a hot oven.
Gluten – A substance made of proteins present in wheat flour that gives structure and strength to baked goods.
Glutinous Rice – A type of short-grain rice that becomes sticky and chewy when cooked.
Goulash – A Hungarian stew flavored with paprika.
Gram – The basic unit of weight in the metric system; equal to about one-thirtieth of an ounce.
Granité (grah nee tay) – A coarse,crystalline frozen dessert made of water, sugar, and fruit juice or other flavoring.
Gras Double (grah doo bl’) – A type of beef tripe that is smooth rather than honeycombed.
Green Meat – Meat that has not had enough time after slaughter to develop tenderness and flavor.
Griddle – To cook on a flat, solid cooking surface called a griddle.
Grill – To cook on an open grid over a heat source.
Grillardin (gree ar dan) – Broiler cook.
Gross Pièce (gross pyess) – Centerpiece of a buffet platter.
Guinea – A domestically raised relative of the pheasant.
HACCP – Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point; a food safety system of
self-inspection designed to highlight hazardous foods and to control food handling to avoid hazards.
Hare – A game animal similar to rabbit,with dark red,lean meat.
Hash – (1) To chop.(2) A dish made of chopped foods.
Hazard – A potentially dangerous food condition due to contamination,
growth of pathogens,survival of pathogens,or presence of toxins.
Herbs – The leaves of certain plants,used in flavoring.
Hollandaise – A sauce made of butter, egg yolks, and flavorings (especially lemon juice).
Hominy – Corn that has been treated with lye.
Homogenized Milk – Milk that has been processed so the cream doesn’t separate out.
Hongroise (ong grwahz) – Hungarian style.
Hot Smoking – A smoking method in which the foods are smoked at a
temperature high enough to cook or partially cook them.
Hygroscopic – Readily absorbing moisture.
Induction Cooktop – A type of cooktop that works by using magnetic
energy to make pots hot without getting hot itself.
Infection – Disease including much food-borne disease,caused by bacteria in the body.
Intoxication – Disease caused by poisons that bacteria produce while they are growing in food.
Jardinière (zhar din yair) – Garnished with fresh garden vegetables, such as carrots, turnips,green beans,peas,and cauliflower.
Jasmine Rice – A type of aromatic rice from Southeast Asia.
Judic – Garnished with braised lettuce.
Julienne – (1) Cut into small, thin strips, about 1/8 × 1/8 × 21/2 inches
(3 mm × 3 mm × 6.5 cm).(2) Garnished with foods cut in this manner.
Jus (zhoo) – Unthickened juices from a roast.
Jus Lié – Thickened juices from a roast.
Kasha – Whole buckwheat groats.
Ketone Body – A toxic compound that can form in the blood if fats are burned with no carbohydrates present.
Ketosis – A condition in which the blood becomes unable to carry oxygen;
sometimes the result of consuming insufficient carbohydrates.
Kilo- Prefix in the metric system meaning “one thousand.”
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian – Referring to a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products and eggs.
Lacto-vegetarian – Referring to a vegetarian diet that includes milk and other dairy products.
Lard – (1) The rendered fat of hogs. (2) To insert strips of fat into meats low in marbling.
Lasagne Broad – flat egg noodles, or a baked, layered casserole made with these noodles.
Latte Short for caffe latte. A mixture of one part espresso and two or more parts steamed milk.
Leading Sauce – A basic sauce used in the production of other sauces. The five leading hot sauces are béchamel, velouté, espagnole, tomato, and hollandaise Mayonnaise and vinaigrette are often considered leading cold sauces.
Leavening – The production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture.
Lemon Grass – A tropical grass with the aroma of lemon, used for flavoring.
Liaison – A binding agent, usually made of cream and egg yolks,used to thicken sauces and soups.
Lipid – Any of a group of compounds that includes fats and cholesterol.
Liter – The basic unit of volume in the metric system; equal to slightly more than 1 quart.
London Broil – Flank steak or other cut of beef broiled rare and cut in thin slices.
Lyonnaise (lee oh nez) – Containing or garnished with onions.
Macaroni – Noodle product made of flour and water and dried.
Macchiato (mah kee ah toe) – Espresso topped with a little frothed milk.
Mache – A small, tender leafy green with a delicate taste.
Magret – The boneless breast of the moulard duck.
Matre d’Hotel Butter (may truh doh tell) – Compound butter containing parsley and lemon juice.
Marbling – The fat deposited within muscle tissue.
Marinate – To soak a food in a seasoned liquid.
Marsala – A flavorful sweet to semidry wine from Sicily.
Mayonnaise – A semisolid cold sauce or dressing consisting of oil and vinegar emulsified with egg yolks.
Mayonnaise Chaud-Froid – A mixture of aspic jelly and mayonnaise, used like regular chaud-froid.
Meringue – A foam made of beaten egg whites and sugar.
Meringue Glacée – Baked meringue shells served with ice cream.
Mesclun – A mixture of tender baby lettuces.
Meter – The basic unit of length in the metric system;slightly longer than 1 yard.
Meunière – Referring to fish prepared by dredging in flour and sautéing, served with brown butter,lemon juice,and parsley.
Microwave – Radiation generated in special ovens and used to cook or heat foods.
Milli – Prefix in the metric system meaning “one-thousandth.”
Mince – To chop into very fine pieces.
Minestrone – Italian vegetable soup.
Minimum Safe Internal Temperature- The lowest temperature to
which a food item must be heated and at which it must be held for a
given time in order to be considered safe.
Mirepoix (meer pwah) – A mixture of rough-cut or diced vegetables, herbs,and spices,used for flavoring.
Mise en Place (meez on plahss) – French term meaning “everything in
place.” The setup for food production. All the preparations and organization
that must be made before actual production can begin.
Miso – A paste made of fermented soybeans, sometimes with the addition of other grains. Also called Bean Paste.
Mocha (moh kah) – (1) A variety of Arabian coffee. (2) A mixture of
espresso and hot chocolate or cocoa. (2) A flavoring made of coffee and chocolate.
Moist-heat Cooking Methods – Methods in which heat is conducted to foods by water or other liquid or by steam.
Mollusk – A soft-bodied sea animal,usually inside a pair of hinged shells, such as clam and oyster.
Monter au Beurre (mohn tay oh burr) – To finish a sauce or soup by swirling in raw butter until it is melted.
Mornay – A sauce made of béchamel and Gruyère cheese.
Moulard – A breed of duck with a thick,meaty breast,raised for its large, fatty liver.
Mousse – A soft, creamy food, either sweet or savory, made light by the addition of whipped cream,beaten egg whites,or both.
Mousseline Forcemeat – A forcemeat made of puréed fish, poultry, or meat,heavy cream,and,usually,egg whites.
Mozzarella – A mild unripened cheese, used in pizzas and many other Italian-style dishes.
Natural Casing – A sausage casing made from the intestines of meat animals.
Navarin – A brown lamb stew.
New England Boiled Dinner- A dish consisting of simmered corned
beef and simmered vegetables, served together.
Nicoise (nee swahz) – (1) Prepared in the style of Nice,France.(2) Garnished
with or containing tomato concassé cooked with garlic.
Nitrosamine – A cancer-causing compound formed when meats containing sodium nitrate are subjected to high heat.
Nouvelle Cuisine – A modern style of cooking that emphasizes lightness
of sauces and seasonings, shortened cooking times, and new
and sometimes startling combinations of foods.
Nutrient density – The amount of nutrients per calorie in a food.
Offal – Variety meats.
Oolong – A greenish-brown,partially fermented tea.
Organic – Grown or raised without chemical growth enhancers or medications or, for plants,without artificial fertilizers or pesticides.
Oven Spring – The rapid rise of yeast goods in the oven due to production
and expansion of trapped gases as a result of the oven heat.
Overrun – The increase in volume of ice cream or frozen desserts due to the incorporation of air while freezing.
Pan Gravy – A type of sauce made with the pan drippings of the meat or poultry it is served with.
Pan-Broil – To cook uncovered in a sauté pan or skillet without fat.
Pan-Fry – To cook in a moderate amount of fat in an uncovered pan.
Panino – (1) Originally,a small Italian sandwich made with a dinner roll. (2) A grilled sandwich usually made in a device that grills both sides at once and compresses the sandwich.
Panko Coarse – Japanese-style breadcrumbs.
(en) Papillote (on poppy yote)- Wrapped in paper or foil for cooking so that the food is steamed in its own moisture.
Parboil – To cook partially in a boiling or simmering liquid.
Parcook – To partially cook by any method.
Parfait – A dessert consisting of alternating layers of ice cream and fruit or syrup in a tall,narrow glass.
Parmentier (par mawn tyay) – Garnished with or containing potatoes.
Par Stock – The inventory of goods that an operation must have on hand to continue operating between deliveries.
Pasta – General term for any shape of macaroni product or egg noodles.
Pasteurized – Heat-treated to kill bacteria that might cause disease or spoilage.
Pastry Cream – A thick custard sauce containing eggs and starch.
Pate – A dish made of a baked forcemeat,usually in a crust.
Pate à Choux (pot a shoo) – A soft dough used for making éclairs and cream puffs. Also called éclair paste.
Pate à Paté – Dough or pastry used to make a crust for paté.
Paté de Campagne – A paté or terrine characterized by a coarse texture.
Paté en Croute – A paté in a pastry crust.
Pathogen – A bacteria that causes disease.
Patissier (pa tees syay) – Pastry cook.
Peach Melba – A sundae consisting of vanilla ice cream,a peach half, and Melba (raspberry) sauce.
Persillade (pear see yahd) – A mixture of bread crumbs, parsley, and garlic, used to coat roast meat items,usually lamb.
Pesco-vegetarian – Referring to a vegetarian diet that includes fish.
Philadelphia-style – Ice Cream Ice cream containing no eggs.
Pigment – Any substance that gives color to an item.
Pilaf – Rice or other grain product that is first cooked in fat, then simmered
in a stock or other liquid, usually with onions, seasonings, or other ingredients.
Pizza – A thin sheet of lean bread dough baked with a topping.
Poach – To cook gently in water or another liquid that is hot but not actually bubbling,about 160° to 180°F (71° to 82°C).
Poissonier (pwah so nyay) – Fish cook.
Polenta – Italian-style cornmeal.
Portion Control – The measurement of portions to ensure that the correct amount of an item is served.
Potentially Hazardous Food – A food that provides a good environment for the growth of hazardous bacteria.
Pot Roast – A large cut of meat cooked by braising.
Poulette – Allemande sauce flavored with mushrooms, parsley, and lemon juice.
Pour Batter – A batter that is liquid enough to pour.
Poussin – A young chicken weighing 1 pound (500 g) or less.
Pozole – Whole-grain hominy.
Prague Powder #1 – A blend of 6 percent sodium nitrite and 94 percent sodium chloride (table salt), used to cure meats; also called curing salt and tinted curing mix.
Prague Powder #2 – A curing mixture similar to Prague Powder #1 but containing sodium nitrate in addition to sodium nitrite.
Primal Cut – One of the primary divisions of meat quarters, foresaddles, hindsaddles, and carcasses as they are broken down into smaller cuts.
Primary Flavor – The basic flavor of a main ingredient of a dish;one of the components of a flavor profile.
Primeur (pree mur) – Garnished with fresh spring vegetables such as
carrots, turnips,green beans,peas,cauliflower,and small potatoes.
Princesse – Garnished with asparagus.
Printanière (pran tawn yair) – Garnished with fresh spring vegetables
such as carrots,turnips,pearl onions,peas,green beans,and asparagus.
Prix Fixe (pree fix) – French term meaning “fixed price”; referring to a
menu offering a complete meal, with a choice of courses, for one given price.
Process Cheese – A product made by grinding and melting one or more
cheeses,blending them with other ingredients,and pouring the mixture into molds to solidify.
Profiterole – A tiny round pastry made from éclair paste; filled with savory
fillings and served as an hors d’oeuvre, or filled with ice cream and served as a dessert.
Provenrale (pro vawn sal) – Garnished with or containing tomatoes, garlic,parsley,and,sometimes,mushrooms and olives.
Puff Pastry – A light, flaky pastry made from a rolled-in dough and leavened by steam.
Pullman Loaf – A long, rectangular loaf of bread.
Pumpernickel – (1) Coarsely ground rye flour.(2) Bread made with this flour.
Purée – (1) A food product that has been mashed or strained to a smooth pulp.(2) To make such a pulp by mashing or straining a food.
Quail – A small game bird, now domestically raised, usually weighing 6 ounces (175 g) or less.
Quatre épices – A spice mixture commonly used to season sausages and forcemeats;French for “four spices.”
Quiche – A savory tart or pie consisting of a custard baked in a pastry shell.
Quick Bread – A bread leavened by chemical leaveners or steam rather than yeast.
Radiation – The transfer of energy by waves, such as infrared or light waves.
Raft – The coagulated clearmeat that forms when stock is clarified.
Ratatouille (ra ta twee) – A Southern French vegetable stew of onions, tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, and green bell peppers.
Ravier (rahv yay) – Oval relish dish.
Ravioli – Dumplings consisting of filled egg noodles.
Recipe – A set of instructions for producing a certain dish.
Reduce – To cook by simmering or boiling until quantity is decreased; often done to concentrate flavors.
Reduction – (1) A liquid concentrated by cooking it to evaporate part of the water. (2) The process of making such a liquid.
Relish – (1) A type of appetizer consisting of raw or pickled vegetables. (2) A mixture of chopped vegetables and sometimes fruits, at least one of which has been pickled in vinegar or a salt solution.
Ricotta – An Italian-style cheese similar to cottage cheese but smoother, moister,and sweeter in flavor.
Rillettes (ree yet)- A seasoned mixture of meat, such as pork, and fat, mashed to a paste;served as an appetizer.
Risotto – A moist Italian dish of rice cooked in butter and stock.
Rissolé (riss oh lay) Browned – Often referring to potatoes cut in small shapes,parboiled,and browned in hot fat.
Roast – To cook foods by surrounding them with hot,dry air,in an oven or on a spit over an open fire.
Roe – Fish eggs.
Roesti Potatoes – Boiled potatoes that are grated, formed into small cakes,and pan-fried until crisp.
Rolled-In Dough – Dough in which a fat is incorporated into the dough in many layers by means of a rolling and folding procedure.
Roquefort – A blue-veined cheese made in Roquefort, France, from sheep’s milk.
Rotisserie – An item of cooking equipment that slowly rotates meat or other foods in front of a heating element.
Ratisseur (ro tee sur) – Cook who prepares roasted, braised, and broiled meats.
Rough Prep – The preliminary processing of ingredients to the point at which they can be used in cooking.
Roux – A cooked mixture of equal parts flour and fat.
Royal Icing – An icing made of confectioners’ sugar and egg whites, used for decorating.
Russet – Starchy potato often used for baking and deep-frying.
Rye Blend – A mixture of rye flour and hard wheat flour.
Sachet (sa shay) – A mixture of herbs and spices tied in a cheesecloth bag.
Salamander – Small broiler used primarily for browning or glazing the tops of certain items.
Salmonella – A widespread food-borne disease, spread by improper food handling and inadequate sanitation.
Sanitize – To kill disease-causing bacteria, usually by heat or by chemical disinfectants.
Saturated Fat – A fat that is normally solid at room temperature.
Sauce – A flavorful liquid, usually thickened, used to season, flavor, and enhance other foods.
Saucier (so see ay) – Sauce cook prepares sauces and stews and sautés foods to order.
Sauerbraten – A German dish consisting of beef marinated in and then cooked with vinegar and other ingredients.
Sausage – A mixture of ground meat, usually pork, and seasonings, usually stuffed into casings.
Sausage Cured – A sausage that contains nitrites or nitrates.
Sausage Fresh – A sausage that contains no nitrites or nitrates.
Sauté – To cook quickly in a small amount of fat.
Scampi – A kind of shellfish similar to large shrimp .In the United States, the term is often used for large shrimp,especially if broiled with garlic butter.
Sear – To brown the surface of a food quickly at high temperature.
Semolina – A hard, high-protein flour often used for the best quality macaroni products.
Set Meal Service – Service of a meal at which all the customers eat at one time.
Shirred Egg – Egg baked in a shallow,buttered dish.
Short – Having a high fat content, which makes the product (such as a cookie or pastry) crumbly and tender.
Shortening – (1) Any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands.
(2) A white, tasteless, solid fat formulated for baking or deep-frying.
Shred – To cut into thin but irregular strips,either with the coarse blade of a grater or with a knife.
Sieve Size – Size of individual pieces, usually of canned vegetables.
Simmer – To cook in water or other liquid that is bubbling gently,about 185° to 200°F (85° to 93°C).
Sirniki – Russian pan-fried cheesecakes.
Slurry – A mixture of raw starch and cold liquid, used for thickening.
Small Sauce – A sauce made by adding one or more ingredients to a leading sauce.
Smoke-Roast – To cook with dry heat in the presence of wood smoke.
Sodium Nitrate – A compound,NaNO3,used to cure meats.
Sodium Nitrite – A compound, NaNO2, used to cure certain meats, especially air-dried meats.
Soft-shell Crab – A just-molted crab whose new shell has not yet hardened.
Solanine – A poisonous substance found in potatoes that have turned green.
Sorbet (sor bay) – Sherbet,usually made without milk products.
Soufflé – A light, fluffy baked egg dish consisting of a base (such as a
heavy white sauce) mixed with egg yolks and flavoring ingredients
into which beaten egg whites are folded just before baking.May be sweet or savory.
Sous Chef (soo shef) – Cook who supervises food production and who reports to the executive chef.
Spaetzle – Small dumplings or noodles made from a thin egg and flour batter.
Specialty Cheese – Cheese in limited production, with particular attention to natural flavor and texture profiles.
Spelt – A type of wheat grain similar to farro.
Spice – Any part of a plant,other than the leaves,used in flavoring foods.
Squab – Young,domestically raised pigeon.
Staling – The change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to the loss of moisture by the starch granules.
Standard Breading Procedure – The procedure for coating a food
product with bread crumbs (or other crumbs or meal) by passing it through flour,then egg wash,then crumbs.
Standardized Recipe – A set of instructions describing the way a particular establishment prepares a particular dish.
Staphylococcus Staph – A bacterium that causes food-borne disease
by producing a toxin or poison in improperly stored foods.
Static Menu – A menu that offers the same dishes every day.
Station Chef – Cook in charge of a particular department in a kitchen or food production facility.
Steam – To cook by direct contact with steam.
Stew – (1) To simmer a food or foods in a small amount of liquid that is usually served with the food as a sauce.
(2) A dish cooked by stewing, usually one in which the main ingredients are cut in small pieces.
Stock – A clear,thin that is,unthickened liquid flavored with soluble
substances extracted from meat, poultry, and fish, and their bones, and from vegetables and seasonings.
Streusel (stroy zel) – A crumbly topping for baked goods,consisting of fat,sugar,and flour rubbed together.
Strong Flour – Flour with a high protein or gluten content.
Supporting Flavor – Flavors of seasoning and flavoring ingredients and
other secondary ingredients of a dish; flavors that support and enhance the primary flavors.
Suprême Sauce – A sauce made of chicken velouté and heavy cream.
Surimi – A processed seafood product manufactured to resemble shellfish such as crab.
Sweat – To cook in a small amount of fat over low heat, sometimes covered.
Sweetbreads – The thymus glands of calves and young animals,used as food.
Swiss Steak– Beef round steaks braised in brown sauce.
Table d’Hote (tobble dote) – (1) Referring to a fixed-price menu with no choices.
(2) Referring to a menu on which prices are listed for complete meals rather than for each separate item.
Tang – The portion of a metal knife blade that is inside the handle.
Tapa – Any of a variety of Spanish-style appetizers,intended to be served with wine or other drinks.
Tasting Menu – A type of fixed-price menu designed to showcase the chef’s art by presenting a series of small courses.
Tatsoi – A leafy vegetable or salad green related to mustard and watercress.
Tempeh – A fermented soy product with a dense,meaty texture.
Temper – To raise the temperature of a cold liquid gradually by slowly stirring in a hot liquid.
Teriyaki – A grilled or pan-broiled food that is finished with a soy saucebased glaze.
Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP) – A high-protein product made from defatted soy flour, processed to give it a sponge-like texture; available unflavored or flavored to resemble various meats.
Tinted Curing Mix – See Prague Powder #1.
Tofu – A bland, white food made by coagulating soy milk. Also called Bean Curd.
Tomalley – The liver of lobsters and some other shellfish.
Tournant (toor nawn) – Cook who replaces other station cooks; relief cook or swing cook.
Tournedos (toor nuh doe) – A small beef steak cut from the tenderloin.
Trans Fat – A solid fat, usually manufactured by hydrogenation, which limits the body’s ability to rid itself of cholesterol.
Treviso – A red-leafed relative of radicchio and Belgian endive with elongated leaves.
Trichinosis – A food-borne disease caused by a parasite, sometimes found in undercooked pork.
Tripe – The muscular stomach lining of beef or other meat animals.
Truit au Bleu – Poached trout that was alive until cooking time and that turns blue when cooked in court bouillon.
Trunnion Kettle – A steam-jacketed kettle that can be tilted for emptying.
Truss – To tie poultry into a compact shape for cooking.
Tunneling – A condition of muffin products characterized by large, elongated holes;caused by overmixing.
TVP – see Textured Vegetable Protein.
Univalve – A mollusk with a single shell,such as abalone.
Unsaturated Fat – A fat that is normally liquid at room temperature.
Variety – Meats Various organs,glands,and other meats that don’t form a part of the dressed carcass.
Vegan – Referring to a vegetarian diet that omits all animal products, including dairy products and eggs.
Velouté – A sauce made by thickening white stock with a roux.
Venison – The meat of wild or farm-raised deer.
Vent – To allow circulation or escape of a liquid or gas,such as by setting
a pot of hot stock on blocks in a cold-water bath so that the cold water can circulate around the pot.
Viande (vee awnd) – French for “meat.”
Vichyssoise (vee she swahz) – Cold purée of leek and potato soup with cream.
Vin – Wine.
Vin Blanc – White wine.
Vin Rouge – Red wine.
Vinaigrette – Dressing or sauce made of oil, vinegar, and flavoring ingredients.
Vitamin – Any of a group of compounds that are present in foods in very
small quantities and that are necessary for regulating body functions.
Volatile – Evaporating quickly when heated.
Wash – (1) To brush or coat a food item with a liquid such as egg wash or milk.(2) The liquid used in this procedure.
Waxy Potato – A young potato high in sugar and low in starch.
Weak Flour – Flour with a low protein or gluten content.
Welsh Rabbit – A dish made of melted cheddar cheese and, usually, ale or beer.Sometimes called Welsh rarebit.
White Pekin – The most common breed of domestic duck in the United States.
Whitewash – A thin mixture or slurry of flour and cold water.
Winterized Oil – Vegetable oil that stays clear and liquid when refrigerated.
Wrap – A sandwich in which the filling is wrapped, like a Mexican burrito, in a large flour tortilla or similar flatbread.
Zest – The colored part of the peel of citrus fruits.