Human Resources Terms

Appraisal (employee): An objective and comprehensive rating or evaluation of employees.

Customer (internal): Employees of the hospitality operation.

Customer (external): Guests served by the hospitality operation.

Absolute standard (performance appraisal method): Measuring an employee ’ s performance against an established standard.

Relative standard (performance appraisal method): Measuring one employee’s performance against another employee’s performance.

Targeted outcome (performance appraisal method): Measuring the extent to which specified goals were achieved.

BARS: Short for Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales, an appraisal system in which employees are evaluated based on their display of definitive, observable, and measurable behaviors.

BOS: Short for Behavioral Observation Scale, a type of appraisal system in which judgments about employee performance are related to a series of statements describing specific examples of observable behaviors.

Management by objectives: A plan developed by an employee and his or her supervisor that defines specific goals, tactics to achieve them, and corrective actions, if needed.

Peer evaluation: An appraisal system that utilizes the opinions of coworkers to evaluate an employee’s performance.

Upward assessment (performance appraisal method): An appraisal system that utilizes input from those staff members who are directly supervised by the staff member being evaluated.

360- degree appraisal(performance appraisal method): A method of performance appraisal that utilizes input from supervisors, peers, subordinates, and even guests and others to provide a comprehensive evaluation of a staff member’s performance.

Reliability: The ability of a measuring tool to yield consistent results.

Validity: The ability of a measuring tool to evaluate what it is supposed to evaluate.

Halo effect: The tendency to let the positive assessment of one individual trait influence the evaluation of other, nonrelated traits.

Pitchfork effect: The tendency to let the negative assessment of one individual trait influence the evaluation of other, nonrelated traits.

Discipline (management action): Any effort designed to influence an employee’s behavior.

Disciplined (workforce description): The situation in which employees conduct themselves according to accepted rules and standards of conduct.

Progressive discipline: A program designed to modify employee behavior through a series of increasingly severe punishments for unacceptable behavior.

Oral warning (documented): The first step in a progressive discipline process: a written record is made of an oral reprimand given to an employee.

Reprimand: A formal criticism or censure by a person with authority to do so.

Warning (written): The second step in a progressive discipline process that alerts an employee that further inappropriate behavior will lead to suspension.

Suspension: The third step in a progressive discipline process: a period off from work resulting from ongoing inappropriate behavior.

Dismissal: An employer-initiated separation of employment.

Counseling (employee): A process to assist employees in overcoming performance problems.

Turnover: The replacement of one employee by another.

Separation (voluntary): An employee-initiated termination of employment.

Separation (involuntary): An employer-initiated termination of employment.

Exit interview: A meeting between a representative of the organization and a departing employee.

Good faith: The honest intent to act without taking an unfair advantage over another person.

Protected class: A group of workers with a characteristic specifically identified by an employment related law or ordinance as protected.

Performance management: A systematic process by which managers help employees to improve their ability to achieve goals.